Indonesian Maritime State: Shaping Military Professionalism
Time & LocationSession 10
Fri 11:00–12:30 Room 1.505
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- “Bottleneck” in Indonesian Military Career Management Anton Aliabbas Paramadina University
Up-and-stay structure is one of career flow structure that is used by many foreign militaries including Indonesia. According to Harry A Thie et al (1994:79), by applying this structure, accumulation of ‘deadwood’ within the organisation might occur. The study examines practical implication of current design of soldier career management in the Indonesian Army (2015-2017). During 2013-2014, the Army has revised three primary documents regarding soldier career management. The documents were the Army Doctrine on Personnel, Army Main Guideline Book on Personnel, and Technical Guidance Book on Army Officer Career Management. The study finds the new framework contributes to promotion bottleneck in high-ranking Army’s soldiers. The study also indicates that the up-and-stay structure creates a deficit of lower-ranking soldiers. Implications for conceptual, practical and recommendations for future studies are discussed.
- Indonesia’s Defence Diplomacy Transformation: The Post New Order Dynamics Frega Wenas Inkiriwang London School of Economics and Political Science
This paper attempts to analyse the transformation of Indonesia’s Defence Diplomacy in the Post New Order period. In this period, there was a significant development in the country. The military which was used as a political tool by the authoritarian regime underwent a fundamental reform. The process was supported by the military leaders which resulted in the issuance of the new Law on Indonesian National Defence Forces in 2004. This legal basis has since guided how the Indonesian military operates in dealing with external and internal security threats and curbed the socio-political role of the Indonesian military which is associated with the New Order period. However, it has not specifically touched upon the implementation of defence diplomacy, which has significantly increased within the last decade.
Therefore, the paper scrutinises the transformation of Indonesia’s defence diplomacy by comparing the development under different administrations in the Post New Order era. In examining this transformation, the paper firstly highlights the policy crafted by various administrations. This paper also identifies the process of incorporating defence diplomacy in numerous defence white papers in the Post New Order period, which has become the reflection of Indonesia’s defence policy. And subsequently, the paper observes how Indonesia has implemented its defence diplomacy over time by focusing on three key aspects, the actors, the activities and the formats.
An examination of Indonesia’s defence diplomacy transformation in the Post New Order era is critical to help understand how Indonesia has developed its engagement with external partners through diplomacy by using its military, as one of the national instruments. Hence, this paper offers an alternate approach in studying Indonesia’s defence diplomacy under democratic control.
- Maritime Perspective on Indonesian Defence White Paper Anton Aliabbas Paramadina University
Shiskha Prabawaningtyas Paramadina University
Indonesian Defence White Paper published in the years of 1995, 1997, 2003, 2008, 2014, and 2015 should be constructed and functioned as a legal based guideline to Indonesia’s state building as a maritime state after the introduction of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas in 1982 and accepts the territorial sovereignty of Indonesia at seas. As a country consists of 17.508 islands and locates in geostrategic position between Indian and Pacific Ocean, the functions of the sea is at the core debate of state building of becoming a maritime state. Mahan (1890), Till (2009), and Salim (2015) conclude and list preconditions of what constitute a maritime state by building its maritime power. Defence White Paper functions as a state’s grand strategic plan in projecting the Indonesian maritime power including its defence capability. This paper aims to locate the gap between policy orientation and implementation in building Indonesian maritime state by applying the narrative analysis to the six publication of White Defence Paper. By addressing the gap, this paper seeks to locate the hybrid space that undermine the Indonesian state building to be a maritime state.
This panel aims to follow up discussion took place at the 2017 EuroSEAS Conference in Oxford on the panel of Indonesia perspective on military professionalism under democratic control. The 2017 panel concluded two challenges that require further discussion. First is the existing gap between policy orientation and implementation. Secondly the absence of institution’s memories provides lucrative “hybrid space” for such rent-seeker within state building architecture to undermine the intended functional role of state-institutions.
The objective of this panel will further examine the approaches to address the two challenges of minimizing the gap and locating the hybrid space in shaping Indonesian military professionalism. The construction of Indonesian Maritime State is placed as a geopolitical state-position in projecting the posture and competence of Indonesian military professionalism. However, shaping military professionalism should be put as a national interest in order to survive in the dynamic of borderless global order that relies on the logic of interconnected and interdependent. This shaping includes identifying and locating the compatible approach to reform security sector in Indonesian context. The discussion to find the compatible approaches is structured into four thematic issues, which are 1) Policy and implementation, 2) Structure and Posture, 3) Military Capability and Competence, 4) Policy oversights. The elaboration of those four themes encourages trans- or inter- disciplinary approach in order to have a holistic, comprehensive and integration views to address problem of shaping Indonesian military professionalism under democratic control.
The organizing of the follow up panel at the 2019 EuroSEAS Conference in Berlin expects to create an international academic space for feedbacks and comments to the manuscript before plan of publication. The manuscript represents new insight and perspective of Indonesian young scholars on the development of Indonesian military transformation.